Other categories and drivers can be identified depending on the particulars of a given acquisition. An SoS involves multiple typically independent risk assessments for the participating systems. .01Â Â Â Â Â The MRB meetings shall be called by decision of the Chair.Â Deputy Secretary-chaired MRBs (unless delegated) shall occur at Milestones 1, 2, and 3.Â Milestones 0 and 4 and review processes as defined by the Framework are the responsibility of the Heads of Operating Units.Â The Deputy Director for Program Management, OAM shall serve as the Executive Secretary.Â The Executive Secretary shall circulate background and meeting read-ahead materials to the members, organize MRB meetings, prepare Milestone Decision Memorandums for the Chair (and MDA) approval, and maintain all MRB records and a current list of MRB oversight programs and projects and their next planned milestone and probable timing of the milestone review.Â Based on the MRB staff review of milestone documentation and issues identified and coordinated with MRB members, the Chair may elect not to convene a formal MRB meeting. .11Â Â Â Â Â The MRB Chair for high-profile programs/projects is the Department’s Deputy SecretaryÂ who willÂ be advised by the MRB’s members on a program’s or project’s readiness and risk to proceed to the next phase and recommend specific exit criteria for the phase.Â The Deputy Secretary may designate an individual to chair an MRB, but the MDA shall remain with the Deputy Secretary unless formally delegated in writing with rationale.Â.
Software failure analysis in this context may require a different model of accidents than that used for hardware. Iterative System Development and Definition. As an example, Table 1, adapted from the Defense Acquisition Guidebook, lists key considerations for a DoD acquisition strategy [DAU 2012]. However, experience associated with the Mission-Oriented Success Analysis and Improvement Criteria (MOSAIC) and Survivability Analysis Framework (SAF) projects at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) does suggest some approaches for SoS risk management that may assist today’s practitioner in dealing with problems that have no demonstrated solutions [Alberts 2007, Ellison 2008]. 16.Â Â Â Â Â Â Scalable refers to the flexibility of the Framework processes and documentation to be tailored to suit a program or project’s size, complexity, and risk.Â Programs and projects that are not identified as high-profile must nevertheless adhere to the Framework’s concepts as interpreted by each OU to tailor the documentation and reporting according to project size and risk.Â Examples of how application of the Framework may be scaled can be found in the Guidebook. The Easterbrook reference includes a link to a later presentation of his keynote address, which is an excellent introduction to how the scope of an SoS affects a software development life cycle. Defense Acquisition Guidebook, (2012). Hence, requirements for software assurance and other quality attributes related to software dependability and supportability need a strong emphasis. Product Baseline:  Documentation describing all of the necessary functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item; the selected functional and physical characteristics designated for production acceptance testing; and tests necessary for deployment/installation, operation, support, training, and disposal of the configuration item. 3) Who usually controls the "build to" or product baseline in an acquisition program? A caller of a service is only aware of the system attributes that are available in the published interface. While the ICM may be a suitable acquisition life cycle model for an SoS, the model only provides a framework for what is needed. [Alberts 2007]Alberts, Chris, Dorofee, Audrey, and Marino, Lisa. Following the SVR/FCA, the government will further define contractually what constitutes a Class 1 change. Today, an increasing number of acquisitions are focused on systems that are intended to function as components within a larger system-of-systems (SoS) context. For example, changes in mission or business needs, emerging technologies, or other external factors may lead to implementation changes that cannot be accommodated given schedule and resource constraints. Figure 1, from Ward et al., illustrates the relationship between the acquisition strategy and the acquisition plan and other artifacts it guides [Ward 2006]. Historically, except for safety-critical systems and systems controlling financial transactions, efforts to build in these quality attributes have had much lower priority than efforts to develop functionality. Executive Overview of SEI MOSAIC: Managing for Success Using a Risk-Based Approach (CMU/SEI-2007-TN-008). Relationships among drivers, risks, and acquisition strategy [Ward 2006]. An acquisition strategy is a top-level roadmap that focuses on highlighting and managing risks to a successful outcome. Similarly, complex dependencies among systems may expose life cycle processes that are inadequate for managing interaction, coordination, insight, and technical expert reviews of the emerging system, leading to serious deficiencies in the technical solution and inability to deliver. .17Â Â Â Â Â A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) deconstructs a program’s end product (viz., product-oriented) into successive levels with smaller specific elements until the work is subdivided to a level suitable for management control.Â This ensures the use of high-quality estimating structures that allow programs to plan and track costs and schedules by defined deliverables, and results in more consistent cost estimates.Â Standardizing the work breakdown structure enables an organization to collect and share data among programs, a U. S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) best practice.Â It also enables the Department to compare costs across programs, as not standardizing the work breakdown structure causes extreme difficulty in comparing costs from one contractor or program to another.Â. Incorporate effective information management and communications strategies that work internally as well as with other SoS components. “Architecting Principles for Systems of Systems.” Systems Engineering 1, 4 (1998): 267-84. 2.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â For information technology (IT) programs/projects:Â Lifecycle costs, valued in current year dollars, ofÂ more than $75 million or annual cost (all funding from all sources allocated to the project or program in a given fiscal year) exceeding $30 million. For example, a large and diverse set of stakeholders, conflicting objectives among stakeholders, and unstable requirements can all create acquisition risks which may drive choices for one or more strategy elements.
Problems are increasingly difficult to identify and correct with the shift from stand-alone systems to interdependent systems.
However, the incremental commitment model (ICM) has an advantage because it is specifically designed to deal with complex stakeholder dynamics and to integrate human, hardware, and software aspects of development in an SoS context. Figure 2. Exploration Commitment Review: Ensure the exploration phase plan includes tasks, deliverables, and resources related to developing scenarios and requirements for quality attributes and developing an assurance case framework. The acquisition process typically concentrated first on the functionality required and then on monitoring development and reviewing products to ensure the required functionality was provided. The realities of system acquisition in an SoS environment, therefore, place significant new demands on the acquisition strategy, which must be robust against considerable change.
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