“Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD)....[has] a diameter greater than 50 micrometers (0.05 mm). On 9 September 2017, an ATR 72-500 crew temporarily lost control of their aircraft when it stalled whilst climbing in light to moderate icing conditions after violation of applicable guidance.
1 . The station originating the following weather report has a field elevation of 1,300 feet MSL.
When does an occluded front produce the most dangerous forms of weather? Allow a margin of airspeed above normal approach speed. Occasionally, certain temperature and droplet size combinations can lead to the formation of a “double ram’s horn” shape forward of the leading edge with protrusions from both the upper and lower leading edge surfaces. Which conditions are most favorable for the formation of radiation fog?
Alternatively, a collision with terrain may result when altitude cannot be maintained. A pilot reporting turbulence that momentarily causes slight, erratic changes in altitude and/or attitude should report as. In a stratiform cloud in temperate latitudes, the maximum ice accretion is often found near the top of the cloud and it may be unwise for some turboprop aircraft to remain at such an altitude for extended periods. 11 . Which type of fog is formed by the evaporation process?
Off-shore at night and on-shore during the afternoon.
12 . Weather radar is designed to detect large droplets since they are not only an indication of potential in-flight icing but also updrafts and wind shear. 2 . Which type of icing is hard, heavy, tenacious, and most difficult to break off with deicing equipment? However, there has been a long history of ice falls from aircraft waste drain masts, a few of which have caused minor property damage and occasionally come close to hitting and injuring people. Which is prevalent with cold frontal or squall line thunderstorms and signifies an extremely turbulent zone? What type of clouds will be formed if very stable moist air is forced up slope? 3 . 9 .
When is the temperature at one of the forecast altitudes omitted at a specific location or station in the Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecast (FD)? If during flight, rough air or severe turbulence is encountered: Airspeed should be reduced to maneuvering speed or less. For the 3,000-foot altitude (level) or when the level is within 2,500 feet of station elevation.
What information is provided by a Convective Outlook (AC)? Rain ended 42 past the hour, snow began 42 past the hour. (tops of OVC are reported at 3800 feet MSL): SPECI KOKC 2228Z 28024G36KT 3/4SM BKN008 OVC020 28/23 A3000. Standing lenticular clouds, in mountainous areas, typically indicate which of the following conditions? Hazards arising from the presence of ice on an airframe include: Ice accretion on critical parts of an airframe unprotected by a normally functioning anti-icing or de-icing system can modify the airflow pattern around airfoil surfaces such as wings and propeller blades leading to loss of lift, increased drag and a shift in the airfoil centre of pressure. Which of the following forces tends to slow the wind speed? 2 . Around what temperatures would the heaviest icing most probably be found in a thick nimbostratus cloud? A ceiling is defined as the height of the: Lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena aloft that is reported as broken or overcast.
When ground speed increases, rate of descent must increase. The Investigation concluded that the stall and its sequel were attributable to deficient flight management and inappropriate use of automation. Maximum downdrafts in a microburst encounter may be as strong as: 13 . If flying in IFR conditions and you encounter freezing rain beneath the frontal slope, what is the best procedure to avoid icing? 18 . Which areas would be most conducive to the formation of fog? 2 .
Rime may begin to form as a rough coating of a leading edge but if accretion continues, irregular protrusions may develop forward into the airstream, although there are structural limits to how much “horn” development can occur. The size of a droplet will also affect what happens after such impact - for example larger droplets will often be broken up into smaller ones.
Rotor clouds and altocumulus standing lenticular clouds. In mountainous terrain, this very often leads to a stall followed by a loss of control when the pilot attempts to maintain altitude over the high terrain. If the air temperature is +8°C at an elevation of 1,350 feet MSL and a standard (average) temperature lapse rate exists, what will be the approximate freezing level? Identifying an air mass as tropical or polar is in relation to its: 11 .
Extract from Transport Canada Aviation Safety Letter 1/2007: Flight Safety Foundation - Flight Safety Digest, January 1996: Flight Safety Foundation - Flight Safety Digest, April 2005: see also FAA "Lessons Learned from Transport Airplane Accidents": EGAST Safety Promotion Leaflet (GA5) for GA operations: EGAST Safety Promotion Leaflet (GA10) for GA operations: This page was last edited on 31 August 2020, at 22:39.
Pilot weather reports (PIREPs), AIRMETs, and SIGMETs. With a warm front, the most critical period is before the front passes the airport. 1 . If squalls are reported at your destination, what wind conditions should you anticipate? Sufficient water vapor, an unstable lapse rate, and a lifting force. Actual frontal positions, pressure patterns, temperature, dew point, wind, weather, and obstructions to vision at the valid time of the chart.
What characteristics are observed when a headwind shears to be a constant tailwind?
Initial findings of the continuing Investigation include that after indications of brief but concurrent instability in the function of both engines, the thrust to both simultaneously reduced to near idle and control of the aircraft was lost. view comments: Modified: 7/16/2004 Original Version Comments: 0: make comment: 188.8.131.52.4.A.1
Standing lenticular clouds, in mountainous areas, indicate: Definition. An air mass is a large body of air that has fairly uniform ________________________ characteristics. An aircraft that encounters a headwind of 45 knots, within a microburst, may expect a total shear across the microburst of: 14 . Definition. 9 . Which changes of state of moisture absorb heat energy? 12 . The zone between two air masses of different properties is called: 2 . Standing lenticular clouds, in mountainous areas, indicate, Fog is usually prevalent in industrial areas because of, an abundance of condensation nuclei from combustion products, Warm, moist air over low, flatland areas on clear calm nights.
A 5% to 10% increase in stall speed for airplanes and a loss of lift for helicopters. AC 00-6A: Term.
Temperature-dew point spread is 5 °F (2.8 °C) and decreasing. The temperature to which the air must be cooled to become saturated by the water vapor already present in the air is known as the: 3 .
10 . The earth's atmosphere is primarily composed of: 9 . If, while in flight, an area of severe turbulence is encountered, which flight condition should you attempt to maintain? Runback is usually attributable to the relatively large size of the SLD encountered but may also occur when a thermal ice protection system has insufficient heat to evaporate the quantity of supercooled water impinging on the surface.
8 . Ice from toilet waste masts is often referred to as "blue ice". What determines the structure or type of clouds which form as a result of air being forced to ascend? All of the listed clouds are in the low family of clouds. The rate of cooling in saturated air is slower. Temperatures freezing or below and visible liquid moisture. Compare the rate of cooling when saturated air is lifted to the rate of cooling when unsaturated air is lifted. Indicated airspeed and pitch attitude: Increase and there is a tendency to go above glide slope. Spacing between isobars on a weather chart can give the pilot a general indication of the: 16 . In certain circumstances, very little surface roughness is required to generate significant aerodynamic effects and, as ice-load accumulates, there is often no aerodynamic warning of a departure from normal performance. Which family of clouds is least likely to contribute to structural icing on an aircraft? Structural icing - The formation of ice on the exterior of an aircraft during flight through clouds or liquid precipitation when the skin temperature is equal or less to 0 degrees C. The main concern of structural icing is the loss of aerodynamic efficiency due to an increase in drag and a decrease in lift. 6 . 19 .
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