Interactions between predators and mule deer are complex and highly variable across distance and time; the key to understanding predation is differentiating between the act of predation and the effect of predation. On CRLRC, mule deer densities declined from 1.9 deer/mi2 in 2005 to 0.7 deer/mi2 in 2008, highlighting the variation possible in deer populations in response to drought and other factors. Learn more about our mission and programs. NMSU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Cooperative Extension programs, the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Mule Deer Working Group (www.muledeerworkinggroup.com), and State Wildlife Agencies all have publications and other information available on increasing the quality of deer habitat. Get the latest species and season information. Bartos, D.L. However, they do prefer sites around water, and free water may be required during droughts or while raising fawns. During their first few days, they remain hidden and alone except when feeding (Figure 4). 1–11). Winter diets may be supplemented with firs, pines, and other evergreens, though in limited quantities because many of these conifers contain secondary plant compounds that are toxic to deer, inhibiting function of their digestive systems.
Rocky Mountain mule deer are found in the northern two-thirds of the state and desert mule deer in the southern third. Uncertainty still lingers over exactly how CWD is spread and even the causative agent, which is likely an abnormal protein called a prion. Fort Collins: U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Topo Maps, Aerial Photos, and Topo/Aerial Hybrids. Figure 1. Bender, L.C., J.C. Boren, H. Halbritter, and S. Cox. Conversely, grasslands tend to be poorer habitat because they usually lack cover (Bender, 2012). other government agencies. New Mexico GMU 21B North, Hunting Unit Map: Map Size: 36" x 48" Price: $34.95: If you're looking for a more detailed map or aerial photo of a portion of this GMU you can also build a custom map for New Mexico GMU 21B North. Seasonally, mule deer diets are >60% browse in spring, >50% browse in summer and autumn, and >80% browse in winter (Heffelfinger, 2006). GMU 2A: That portion of GMU 2 west of the Los Pinos River (Pine Arm of Navajo Reservoir) and north of the San Juan River. Everything you need to plan your New Mexico hunting trips for 2020. The breeding class is usually the prime-aged mature bucks, plus a few younger bucks who are exceptionally large-bodied or aggressive. Unlike the white-tailed deer, the mule deer does not raise its tail in alarm, but holds it against the body as it flees. Survival and cause-specific mortality of mule deer fawns in northcentral New Mexico.
The size of the mule deer population in New Mexico is unknown, and densities of mule deer can vary greatly among areas and over time. Shepperd, D. Binkley, D.L. After about age seven the number of fawns will decrease again. NM-2020-21B-North preview image (click to view): Map ID: NM-2020-21B-South: Species: ALL: Hunt Unit: New Mexico … This encourages harvest by hunters where numbers need to be reduced and maintains a younger, more productive age structure in the doe population. Malnutrition is the most common cause of death (excluding hunting) in studied mule deer populations in New Mexico. For more information on all aspects of mule and white-tailed deer ecology and management, see Deer of the Southwest (Heffelfinger, 2006). Journal of Range Management, 50, 129–138. Lou Bender Bucks remove the velvet from their antlers on small trees and shrubs.
Human-Wildlife Interactions, 6, 245—260. During outbreaks, some deer die quickly with no apparent signs of disease, others may die within a week, some recover but are debilitated, and still other deer show no sign of disease during outbreaks, and survivors may develop immunity to that particular virus serotype (but not necessarily other HD virus serotypes). Landscape dynamics of aspen and conifer forests. Original author: James E. Knight, Extension Wildlife Specialist. Bender, L.C. The Rocky Mountain mule deer is larger; the average field-dressed weight of mature (6 years or older) males (bucks) is around 195 lb, with larger deer weighing more than 250 lb. Desert mule deer prefer shrublands and woodlands in desert mountain ranges and hills, or arroyos in arid desert flats.
For permission to use publications for other purposes, contact firstname.lastname@example.org or the authors listed on the publication. In general, mule deer have been declining in numbers in New Mexico since populations peaked around the 1960s, similar to declines seen throughout the West (Heffelfinger and Messmer, 2003). Mule deer may also stot, or bounce stiff-leggedly on all four legs, when fleeing.
Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, 1118—1124. Rodden. Bartos, T.J. Stohlgren, and L.G. There are two subspecies of mule deer in New Mexico, the Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. hemionus hemionus) and the desert mule deer (O. hemionus eremicus). Guide L-301 The antlers are shed following the breeding season each winter, and new antlers begin growing shortly after the old ones are dropped. He earned his Ph.D. from Michigan State University. In all areas, a wide variety of other forbs are important depending upon what exactly is available. 2011. Mule deer are New Mexico's most important big game species. Headrick (Eds. Bender, L.C., B.D. In late August or September, the velvet dries up and is rubbed off on small trees and shrubs as the antlers harden or mineralize. In general, mule deer have been declining in numbers in New Mexico since populations peaked around the 1960s, similar to declines seen throughout the West (Heffelfinger and Messmer, 2003). The smaller or less-aggressive bucks recognize their superiors and usually give in to their dominance.
Whether predation is mostly additive or mostly compensatory varies with the specific local conditions of the predator and prey communities, and their surroundings.
The dropping of antlers occurs when the length of daylight decreases, triggering glandular reactions that control the production of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and other hormones. However, the World Health Organization has concluded that there is no evidence that CWD can be transmitted to humans.
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