[p] These notations were generally made on the back of the shell's bridge (called bridge notations), the lower carapace, or the xiphiplastron (tail edge).
In: Li F, and Prager Banner D, editors.
2010.  A complete record of all the above elements is rare; most bones contain just the date, diviner and topic of divination, and many remained uninscribed after the divination. The rulers of the Shang Dynasty were very superstitious so divination was Rituals describing the process of creating oracle bones were recorded in Mongolian divination manuals dated to the early 20th century.
The following are the main collections. Divinations were typically carried out for the Shang kings in the presence of a diviner. The evidence for scribal training at Anyang. There is general agreement on four of these, spanning dates from 1198 to 1180 BCE. Shang Dynasty oracle bones include complete inscriptions, and their preservation is key to understanding the growth and development of the written form of the Chinese language. The number of pits per bone or shell varied widely.
The Origin and Early Development of the Chinese Writing System. Chen Zhaorong (陳昭容) (2003) 秦系文字研究 ﹕从漢字史的角度考察 Research on the Qin (Ch'in) Lineage of Writing: An Examination from the Perspective of the History of Chinese Writing.
Photo by Dr. Meierhofer. The shift from generalized use to elaborate ritual took place over hundreds of years and was not instantaneous over the entire Shang society.
 In 1908, scholar Luo Zhenyu discovered the source of the bones near Anyang and realized that the area was the site of the last Shang dynasty capital.  The diviners named on the bones have been assigned to five periods by Dong Zuobin:.
Pei Mingxiang argued that they predated the Anyang site. Oracle bones were first identified in the late 19th-century, at archaeological sites such as Yinxu, a late Shang Dynasty capital near Anyang.
), about 3,000 years ago: Prayers would be written on a piece of bone, usually from a turtle or cow, and then burned to see how the bone cracked.
These, together with royal-sized tombs,[g] proved beyond a doubt for the first time the existence of the Shang dynasty, which had recently been doubted, and the location of its last capital, Yin. Liu L, and Xu H. 2007. The oracle bones bear the earliest known significant corpus of ancient Chinese writing[a] and contain important historical information such as the complete royal genealogy of the Shang dynasty. At least one such drill has been unearthed at Erligang, exactly matching the pits in size and shape. the book were published during 1978 and 1982. Oracle Bone Inscriptions. The Shang people practiced divination by boring a series of pits into either a tortoise plastron (the bottom part of the tortoise shell) or a cattle scapula.
Oracle bone script graphs turned 90 degrees: From left, 馬/马 mǎ ‘horse’, 虎 hǔ ‘tiger’, 豕 shĭ ‘swine’, 犬 quǎn ‘dog’, 鼠 shǔ ‘rat and mouse’, 象 xiàng ‘elephant’, 豸 zhì ‘beasts of prey’, 龜 guī ‘turtle’, 爿qiáng ‘bed’ (now 床 chuáng), 為/为 wèi ‘to lead’ (now ‘do or for’), and 疾 jí ‘illness. [q] Scapula notations were near the socket or a lower edge. The earliest oracle bones (corresponding to the reigns of Wu Ding and Zu Geng) record dates using only the 60-day cycle of stems and branches, though sometimes the month was also given.
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