elastic rebound theory steps

9) What is the strongest magnitude earthquake ever measured on the Richter scale? 0000005240 00000 n

A massive tsunami, or large ocean wave, hit Japan and its neighboring nations causing widespread disaster. This picture, taken near Bolinas in Marin County by G.K. Gilbert, shows a fence that was offset about 8.5 feet along the trace of the fault (from Steinbrugge Collection of the UC Berkeley Earthquake Engineering Research Center). The following diagram illustrates the process. 0000073153 00000 n

'K�n)'h8|O7���n���&2c#q;�o�(���������[����g�o����@��I�*N�mBcì?���3\�IA�C���9���x����\+%�n~��ߥ�{d���5p~w+�����K��C���Bu�]�|�����V�d ��:��Y�����N[ ��Ѐ��B>��4T[ۼ)z�R��jB��r=�2 Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! of previously stored elastic stress. 0000124614 00000 n

Previously it was thought that ruptures of the surface were the result of strong ground shaking rather than the converse suggested by this theory. Such simplifications must be understood to interpret the model accurately. 10 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 12 /H [ 1477 249 ] /L 139390 /E 130839 /N 2 /T 139072 >> endobj xref 10 53 0000000016 00000 n In these subduction zones, friction causes the top plate to bend and store elastic energy. Steinbrugge Collection of the UC Berkeley Earthquake Engineering Research Center, 1906 Marked the Dawn of the Scientific Revolution, Big Quakes can be Followed by Decades of Inactivity, Other Major Earthquakes in the SF Bay Area. Some materials, like rubber or certain plastics, can store a large amount of elastic energy before snapping back to their original shape. From an examination of the displacement of the ground surface - Definition, History & Facts, What is an Earthquake?

{{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons The actual faulting associated with an earthquake may be complex, and it is often not clear whether in a particular earthquake the total energy issues from a single fault plane. Start at the bottom. This is known as the elastic rebound theory. Japan even experienced a nuclear disaster as the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant went into meltdown status.

The overall goal, of course, is to better understand earthquakes and to predict when they might strike in order to reduce damage and loss of life. The fractures propagate rapidly through the rock, usually tending in the same direction and sometimes extending many kilometres along a local zone of weakness. In certain areas of the Earth, tectonic plates, or the plates of rock that make up the crust, are running into each other.

Positive Outlook Predicts Less Memory Decline, Touch and Taste? It is a bit broader than our previous subduction zone example, but often makes news headlines only during these large events.

0000130644 00000 n Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most earthquakes are the result of the sudden elastic rebound When the earthquake occurs the distortion is released 0000005421 00000 n Questions?

Study.com has thousands of articles about every Fault rupture starts at the earthquake focus, a spot that in many cases is close to 5–15 km under the surface. 0000001726 00000 n

store elastic stress that is released suddenly during an earthquake. Most earthquakes are the result of the sudden elastic rebound of previously stored energy. 0 0 1.

0000007992 00000 n Earthquakes have different properties depending on the type of fault slip that causes them (as shown in the figure).

0000105260 00000 n 's' : ''}}. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. 0000013988 00000 n When the stress exceeds the elastic limit a crack or fracture is developed. H�b```c``= 1) zero stress on elastic material/it's at original position 2) stress is applied/deformation occurs 3) release of energy (earthquake) 4) elastic material rebounds Following the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Henry Feilding Reid examined the displacement of the ground surface around the San Andreas Fault. (The theory also predicted, of course, that the place would be along… Reid's theory extended earlier insights into the earthquake process by G.K. Gilbert of the U.S. Geological Survey, who also served on the Lawson Commission. H.H Reed. 0000005011 00000 n His early (The theory also predicted, of course, that the place would be along the San Andreas or an associated fault.) trailer << /Size 63 /Info 8 0 R /Root 11 0 R /Prev 139062 /ID[<25473aedc61d48ad4609937a81a8ab8f><8f0ca64f378773d8be74a32ace18c342>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 11 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 7 0 R /Metadata 9 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /S 48 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 62 0 R >> stream

0000002476 00000 n Did you know the same forces that cause a rubber band to snap back into shape when you stretch it cause some of the world's worst earthquakes? Create an account to start this course today. 0000012899 00000 n Just be sure to aim away from your eyes! Along this line the ground was displaced horizontally as much as 6 metres (20 feet). which accompanied the 1906 earthquake, Henry Fielding Reid, 0000080073 00000 n GPS). The elastic rebound theory of earthquake sources allows rough prediction of the occurrence of large shallow earthquakes. 0000008242 00000 n 0000002064 00000 n When rock masses slip past each other parallel to the strike, the movement is known as strike-slip faulting.

Observed geologic faults sometimes show relative displacements on the order of hundreds of kilometres over geologic time, whereas the sudden slip offsets that produce seismic waves may range from only several centimetres to tens of metres. 0000013965 00000 n Have any problems using the site? Select a subject to preview related courses: On March 11, 2011, a massive earthquake hit the coast of Japan, near the town of Sendai. 0000048235 00000 n

Almost all materials on Earth have some level of elasticity, or the ability to bend before breaking. 0000042537 00000 n

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